Authors: MARIANA P. PROENCA, JAVIER. RIAL, JOAO P. ARAUJO, CELIA T. SOUSA.
Link: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89474-z
Cylindrical magnetic nanowires are key elements of fast-recording and high-density 3D-storage devices. The accurate tuning of the magnetization processes at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of future nano-devices. Here, we analyzed the magnetization of Ni nanostructures with 15–100 nm in diameter and 12–230 nm in length and compared our results with experimental data for periodic arrays. Our modelling led to a phase diagram of the reversal modes where the presence of a critical diameter (d ≈ 30 nm) triggered the type of domain wall (DW) formed (transverse or vortex); while a critical length (L ≈ 100 nm) determined the number of DWs nucleated. Moreover, vortex-DWs originated from 3D skyrmion tubes, reported as one of the best configurations for storage devices. By increasing the diameter and aspect-ratio of nanowires with L > 100 nm, three reversal modes were observed: simultaneous propagation of two vortex-DWs; propagation of one vortex-DW; or spiral rotation of both DWs through “corkscrew” mechanism. Only for very low aspect-ratios (nanodisks), no skyrmion tubes were observed and reversal occurred by spiral rotation of one vortex-DW. The broad range of nanostructures studied allowed the creation of a complete phase diagram, highly important for future choice of nanoscaled dimensions in the development of novel nano-devices.